Possible Role of Nutrition in Prevention of Sarcopenia and Falls


      Objective: In this review, we analyze the foundation of sarcopenia as a potentially modifiable risk factor for falls, and we try to formulate practical strategies for nutritional interventions aimed at reducing the risk for sarcopenia and falls in our elderly patients.
      Methods: An extensive literature search was performed using the PubMed and the Google Scholar databases.
      Results: Falls are a common and costly source of injury and death in elderly adults. A large proportion of injurious falls are due to a trip or slip, suggesting that muscular factors are major determinants of both fall risk and the risk for fall-related injury.
      Conclusion: An increasing body of evidence links sarcopenia, the loss of muscle strength and mass that occurs with advancing age, with an increased risk for falls. Nutritional factors, as well as exercise, can help with both prevention and treatment of sarcopenia and may reduce the risk of falls in the elderly.
      Abbreviations: 25-OHD = 25-hydroxyvitamin D; EAA = essential amino acid; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1; IU = international units; MPS = muscle protein synthesis; PUFA = polyunsaturated fatty acid
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